Wildland Firefighter Gear Lists — How to Become a Wildland Firefighter (2022)

Everything I keep in my red bag and my small personal backpack. Don’t bring a lot of extra stuff or your crew members will be annoyed at you for taking up extra space in the truck. Everything I have in my fireline pack is listed under the What I Carry section on this page. I also have a blog post For my Women specific gear and clothing recommendations.

In no particular order of importance:

  • Charging cable and wall and dual cigarette lighter plug ins for phone

  • Headphones. I have a cheap pair of wireless ear buds.

  • Aux cable for music and podcast listening capabilities. Not all our vehicles have Bluetooth.

  • Extra snacks and beverage packets to add to my line gear if we are spiking out

  • Reading material (I don’t get sick reading in vehicles so I go through a lot of books and magazines when I’m not taking my turn driving. Some people bring tablets, and I also read on the Kindle app on my phone)

  • Hoody and/or puffy jacket (I get cold easily and like to have it handy. You will usually buy crew shirts, hats, and hoodies at the beginning of the year. They are not provided to you for free.)

  • Sunglasses of some sort. I love Goodr Circle Gs. They fit my small face, don’t slip down, are flexible, polarized, hold up really well and are only $25. I recently got LASIK and it was life changing, but before that I used prescription sunglasses (Contacts really irritated my eyes while working in smoke and ash, but some people use them no problem. I just changed into my prescription sunglasses anytime it was sunny and I didn’t had any problems. I had prescription pairs from Eyebuydirect.com that held up really well.

  • Insulated coffee mug (I use a 16-oz Klean Kanteen or 16-oz Contigo Snap Lid so I can get coffee to go when we are out and about and not need single use cups that I immediately throw away. And it keeps my coffee way hotter.) Lots of coworkers have Yeti mugs and love them too.

  • Giant water bottle (I use a 40-oz HydroFlask to stay hydrated while not working on a fire so I don’t deplete my water in my fire pack or have to use single use plastic water bottles. I also have one in my fire pack. These are so rad. They will keep ice for 2 days if you are careful. There is nothing better than cold water when you are sweating and super hot on a fire.)

    (Video) Wildland Fire Gear | Wildland Firefighting

  • Spare pens including a blue ink pen and a Sharpie (I’m always writing things down on the fireline and it’s important to have them. You’ll understand about blue ink when you are on your first big fire.)

  • Cash and/or credit card (You’ll need money to buy your own food on the road. You will get reimbursed up to a certain amount when you return to your home station and fill out your Travel Voucher. Don’t worry about it now, but it is called your Per Diem. I’ve been in tiny towns that don’t always take debit/credit cards so I like keeping about $50 in my bag in case of emergencies.)

  • Driver’s license (Everyone takes turns driving and if you get pulled over for speeding or reckless driving or whatever YOU are held responsible and have to pay the ticket, not the government. Accidents are another story unless it’s blatantly your fault, then you may be liable for some damages. Point is: Drive carefully! Everyone else in the vehicle is relying on you to keep them safe. Motor vehicle accidents are a leading cause of wildland firefighter deaths.)

  • Lunch box (I use a $6 one I found who knows where, linked to similar, that zips and is insulated. When we are working normal days, not on a fire, we always bring lunch from home because we are usually out in the field doing project work or could be headed to a fire. So it’s important to have a sturdy container to keep your lunch in while it’s bouncing around in the back of the truck. Some crew members just use grocery store reusable bags, but I like that my beverages and snacks stay cold on hot days in my lunch bag.)

  • Metal spork (useful for all foods, cleans easily and plastic utensils suck.)

  • Face sunscreen (I put it on every single day because skin cancer.)

  • SPF chapstick (Same reason as above and fire is rough on your skin and makes your lips chap real bad.)

  • For the curious, I use a super basic black backpack with one zippered pocket that’s about 15 liters for my personal items in the truck. Black was important to me because things get dirty quickly in the back of a truck.

  • If you smoke cigarettes or chew tobacco or have a gum obsession make sure to have plenty to last you 14+ days.

Also in no particular order of importance. Remember that Your home station will issue you a tent, sleeping pad, sleeping bag, and usually a space blanket to protect your sleeping pad from punctures. I use my own one-man tent, but that’s my personal preference. My list will be different than someone else’s list. A lot of people pack less, but I like my toiletries and clean underthings and staying warm.

  • Extra socks and underwear. I bring at least 15 pairs of each. Some people get by on much less but this keeps my feet in good shape and I like clean underwear. This way if I have to extend to a 21-day assignment I’m also well covered and not having to wash things in a sink or waterway. I love these Danner socks. They are a good weight for any temperature, comfortable, hold up really well, are tall enough to be over the tops of my boots, and cheap enough to buy multiple pairs. Guys on my crews love Duluth Trading underwear.

  • Clean crew shirts or plain cotton or wool t shirts to wear under my yellow. At least five. This gives me about four days of wear for each and a clean one to wear when traveling home (which is a rule on most crews). I love Duckworth wool shirts to wear under my yellow and for working out. They are USA made and last forever. I’ve converted most people on my engine to them. Here’s a link to the guy’s version.

  • Spare Nomex pants. In case I rip or tear a pair and there’s not a fire camp to get them traded for a new pair. Also to wear home since they will most likely be clean. Otherwise I wear one pair of Nomex pants for an entire roll unless it’s crazy hot.

  • Wool long underwear top and bottom. I get really cold at night sleeping at high elevations or late in the season when temperatures drop at night. Slipping into a clean long sleeve top and pants to sleep in is a nice luxury.

  • Down jacket, beanie, and gloves for cold times at camp

  • Spare bag to put dirty clothes in.

  • I bring workout clothes and running shoes if I know for certain that we are going somewhere for preparedness (This means that we aren’t going straight to a fire, and instead going as a back up fire resource in case fires start.) Sometimes you sit around a lot waiting to get sent to a fire and being able to go on a run or do some body weight exercises not in your boots and Nomex is a great thing.

  • Flip flops (It’s nice to take the boots off and have something else to walk around in after work. I’ve had the same Reef pair for years)

  • Ball cap (You’ll most likely buy a crew one)

  • An extra headlamp to read with at night so I don’t have to grab it from my fireline pack and forget to put it back. Also serves as a spare. I like this Black Diamond one because it has red light for nighttime and a lock feature).

  • Alarm clock (You can use a watch or your phone)

  • Foot care items like duct tape, mole skin, and Gold Bond Powder. If I’m getting hot spots or blisters I put a long strip of duct tape over the area and hike with that on. It works better for me than anything else because it rarely falls off and rolls up in my boot the way moleskin does. I put Gold Bond on my feet and in my boots every night to keep them drier.

    (Video) Guard School 2018: Wildland Firefighter Initial Training

  • Toiletries:

    • Facial wipes (I like Burt’s Bees ones the best because they are natural and not drying)

    • Toothbrush and toothpaste (travel size isn’t big enough if you brush your teeth twice a day for two weeks, FYI),

    • Ibuprofen, Benadryl, cold medicine, cough drops, and some daily vitamins. I started taking a collagen supplement in my coffee every morning and it makes my joints feel better in my advancing thirties :) Bring whatever else you need medicine-wise if you take medication.

    • Small Dr. Bronners soap, tiny loofah (excellent at getting ash and dirt off), mini 2-in-1 shampoo/conditioner, razor, hair brush (I swear by Mini Wet Brush. It’s the best for my instantly dready thick hair), and facial scrub for the off chance there’s a shower at fire camp. Otherwise you are usually staying at a hotel during your travel home and you can shower there. For this reason I also pack a swimsuit so I can use the hot tub at the hotel on the way home.

    • Deodorant. Helps a little.

    • Hand ointment for cuts and scrapes. I like Burt’s Bees Res Q Ointment because it comes in a small tin.

    • Tweezers for splinters and nail clippers

  • Ear plugs. I can’t sleep without them.

  • Small pillow. I make a pillow out of my down jacket and cover it with a clean t shirt.

  • I keep all my clean clothes in a medium dry bag so they are dry if my red bag gets wet. I also stuff my sleeping bag in a burly trash bag for the same reason. This way I’m never surprised with wet clothes or a wet sleeping bag. Sometimes red bags get flown into spike camp or are in the back of a pickup truck and they get soaked in the rain.

  • Extra snacks and my trusty metal cup for heating things over a fire, making ramen or drinking coffee or having something to eat out of if we make group dinners. Buy a 16 oz rather than a 10 oz, ramen fits better :)

    (Video) Wildfire Red Bag / Campaign Bag

(Video) Chena Hotshots line out gear for an Alaska fire assignment
(Video) How to get into wildland firefighting? | Wildland Firefighter

FAQs

What is the most important gear for a firefighter? ›

A firefighter's helmet is very important equipment, and just like your bike helmet, should always be worn. SCBA means “Self-Contained Breathing Apparatus.” The SCBA supplies clean air to the firefighter so that they can breathe inside a building or an area with toxic smoke.

How much weight do wildland firefighters carry? ›

All wildland firefighters perform arduous duty. Moderate work involves lifting 25 - 50 pounds, and occasional demand for moder- ately strenuous activity. Safety officers and fire behavior officers perform moderate duty.

How many calories do wildland firefighters burn a day? ›

“They burn between 6,000 and 10,000 calories per day,” Michael Davis with the Elk Creek Fire Department said. That's about 15 Big Macs worth of calories.

How hard is wildland firefighting? ›

Wildland firefighters spend long hours in extreme conditions exposed to the elements. Work is mainly performed in forest and range environments with steep terrain. Getting to the fire may require hiking for hours while carrying heavy gear over uneven, rocky slopes covered in vegetation. Temperatures can vary widely.

How do I become a firefighter with no experience? ›

Obtaining a college degree (in Fire Science, Fire Technology, or really anything) Volunteer firefighter experience. Complete a fire academy (usually a Firefighter 1 academy through a college) Any time serving your community or volunteering your time.

Why do firefighters carry nails? ›

These nails are used as door chocks to hold open doors. They can be placed between the door and the door hinge by positioning the one end of the nail on the hinge screw head and the other end of the nail against the door.

How much does a firefighter suit weigh? ›

Regular maintenance and advanced cleanings can help prolong the lifespan of turnout gear. NFPA requires all sets of turnout gear to be retired at or before 10 years of service. The average set of turnout gear weighs as much as 45 pounds. This includes; helmets, gloves, hoods, boots, coats, and pants.

What do you wear under fire gear? ›

Cotton is a comfortable fabric that will absorb moisture. Nylon and polyester are less absorbent but can stand up to extreme temperatures. All of these three are used for making station wear and turnout gears.

How hard is wildland pack test? ›

To complete the arduous pack test, participants must finish a three-mile hike across relatively level terrain while carrying a 45-pound pack in 45 minutes or less. An ability to complete the test in 45 minutes suggests an aerobic fitness score of 45, which is the standard for wildland firefighters.

Why do hotshots cut their pants? ›

Today, the shirts and pants are made of heat-resistant, synthetic aramid fabric. When exposed to flame, the fabric burns but instead of melting when the burning stops, the fabric forms a char that protects the skin. To prevent blisters, cuts, scratches and minor burns during routine firefighting.

What do wildland firefighters eat? ›

Carbohydrate-rich foods include whole-grain products, beans, rice, corn, peas, potatoes, fruit, fruit juice, milk, yogurt, energy bars, and most sport drinks. During work, firefighters need 40 grams of carbohydrate each hour from snacks and sport drinks.

Why do hotshots dig lines? ›

Why we dig lines. To make a fire stop growing, our firefighters have to contain it. We do that by digging line — essentially a trench several feet wide — around the perimeter of the fire.

What is a Type 1 hotshot crew? ›

Hotshot Crews are a Type 1 hand crew. They are the most experienced, fit, and highly trained of any of the Type 2, or Type 2 Initial Attack hand crews. The Bureau of Indian Affairs hosts seven Interagency Hotshot Crews (IHC).

Why do firefighters dig a line? ›

Fire lines, or firelines, are areas which are cleared of vegetation in the hopes of stopping or at least slowing a fire. A fire line may also be called a firebreak, in reference to the idea that it is meant to break the path of the fire, giving firefighting personnel a chance to get the fire under control.

What is a Type 2 fire? ›

Type 2. IC spends all time being a manager. Most Command and General staff positions are filled. Large number of resources utilized. Incident extends into multiple operational periods.

Where do wildland firefighters sleep? ›

Because almost all wildland firefighters need to sleep either in fire camps or in spike camps, they sleep in tents, on the ground, and in hot, smoky, and dusty conditions. Shift work interferes with sleep, especially for those on night shift.

How long is a hotshot season? ›

But Hotshotting itself is much more than that. Hotshotting is work that becomes a way of life. Hotshotting is spending a hundred plus days on assignment over a six month fire season. Hotshotting is working 1000 hours of overtime on top of 40 hours/wk of base pay.

How can I increase my chances of becoming a firefighter? ›

Becoming a firefighter: 10 must-do things
  1. Become an EMT. ...
  2. Volunteer your time. ...
  3. Take fire technology classes. ...
  4. Maintain a clean background and lifestyle. ...
  5. Understand all of the phases of the firefighter hiring process. ...
  6. Start taking firefighter tests. ...
  7. Stop by fire stations. ...
  8. Get some life experience.

How long does a firefighter course take? ›

Compared to many other professions, becoming a firefighter has minimal education requirements. The fire fighting training courses offered by Emcare are between seven to nine weeks long, which is a relatively short amount of time to acquire excellent training to meet the education requirements.

Is it worth being a firefighter? ›

Firefighting is an incredibly rewarding job that's truly worth it if you're willing to put in the time and effort. Though you will have to give up some much-valued time with your friends and family and put yourself at risk in dangerous situations, being a firefighter has plenty of benefits.

Why are fire hats long at the back? ›

The rear brim was to ensure that the firefighter's neck wasn't easily scorched from either heat or water passing over it. In a major emergency, you could reverse Gratcap's helmet and wear it backward to protect your face while keeping your chin on your chest.

Why are fireman hats so big? ›

The large brim on the American helmet was designed to prevent embers and debris from sliding down our neck.

How much rope should a firefighter carry? ›

Firefighters should carry enough rope to conduct primary searches of the smaller rooms, offices, and other spaces they will encounter in their response area. Generally, these applications lend themselves to using between 25 and 35 feet of rope.

How heavy is a fire hose? ›

The line on average attack fire hose is 1 3/4" with its own threaded couplings. 85 lbs of weight is attributed to the hose, 120 lbs of weight based on hose ID and normal known hose length.

How much does fire gear cost? ›

Each set of bunker gear (coat and pants) is sewn to the dimensions of a particular firefighter. This provides the absolute best and safest fit for working in extreme conditions. The clothing is limited to 10 years of use though NFPA standards.
...
Cost To Outfit A Firefighter.
ItemCost
Coat$1800
Pants$1500
Gloves$80
Boots$250
6 more rows
17 Sept 2019

How do I exercise like a firefighter? ›

The focus of the exercises is to improve your mobility and core strength.
...
30-Minute or 45-Minute Workout Option
  1. Squats using body weight or a goblet (weight in front)
  2. Push-ups or a chest press.
  3. Body rows or a dumbbell row.
  4. Overhead press.
  5. Lunge with a bicep curl and a triceps press.
31 Mar 2021

What are firefighter pants called? ›

Bunker gear (also known as turnout gear, fire kit and incident gear) is the personal protective equipment (PPE) used by firefighters. The terms are derived from the fact that the trousers and boots are traditionally kept by the firefighter's bunk at the fire station to be readily available for use.

Are firefighter suits waterproof? ›

The moisture barrier also plays a crucial role in the breathability and insulation of the entire suit, and therefore, the overall level of comfort and protection for the wearer. It typically consists of a composite assembly in which a breathable waterproof film is bonded to a FR substrate.

What socks do firefighters wear? ›

Firefighters should break in boots before wearing them on long assignments, otherwise painful blisters can form on the feet. It is recommended that firefighters wear two pairs of socks, an inner pair of light weight cotton socks and an outer pair of wool socks.

How do you pass the wildland pack test? ›

3 Different Methods to Help You Pass Your WLFF Pack Test - YouTube

What should you eat before a pack test? ›

Have a meal that contains a good portion of carbohydrates (salads, pasta products, rice and beans, etc.). This will provide the body with needed energy for the test. In the morning have a very light breakfast, such as a half or whole banana, some toast, and juice.

How long is a red card good for? ›

“How long is a Red Card good for?” Your wildland firefighter certifications are current for 5 years, with an annual RT-130 refresher and work capacity test required each .

How much weight do hotshot firefighters carry? ›

Generally, a fire line backpack shouldn't exceed 20 pounds, while a travel bag shouldn't weigh more than 45 pounds. Because firefighters have to carry their packs throughout the day, they must also avoid overpacking—too many items can take up limited space or make their bags harder to carry due to the extra weight.

What chainsaws do Hot Shots use? ›

Even though each hotshot crew carries three chainsaws, Mecham still keeps a Silky F180 large-tooth folding saw in his pack. As squad boss, he often scouts ahead of the crew and frequently uses the saw to clear a path through the brush. Coffee is essential if you're working 16-hour shifts.

Are there any female hotshots? ›

More and more women are joining the ranks of the nation's firefighters, making up about 8 percent of firefighters in the United States. But even as they battle back wildfires, female hotshots are working within a system — and even uniforms — designed for men.

Why do wildland firefighters wear yellow shirts? ›

These trained crews suppress flames, extinguish areas of heat to protect wildlife, and work in smoky areas. Visibility on the fireline is critical for firefighter safety, and the color yellow was proven in studies to be more visible in dark and smoky environments.

What do Type 2 wildland firefighters do? ›

The “Firefighter Type 2 (Crewmember)” forms the backbone of our efforts to manage or suppress wildland fire. These entry-level positions frequently work long days in hot, smoky conditions to build fire lines across rugged terrain with hand tools and chainsaws.

What are wildland firefighters called? ›

Smokejumpers – These highly-trained, experienced firefighters parachute from airplanes to provide quick initial attack on wildland fires in remote areas. USAJOBS keywords for these positions include Forestry Technician (Smokejumper), Forestry Technician.

What is a Type 3 wildland firefighter? ›

Type 3. A water tender with a minimum pump capacity of 200 GPM. 1000-2500 gallon tank. GVWR greater than 26,000 pounds.

Why didn't the fire shelters protect the Granite Mountain Hotshots? ›

Mason added that federal officials intended to replace the current fire shelter design following the Yarnell Hill tragedy; however, in that case, with temperatures exceeding 2,200 degrees F with extreme turbulent air conditions, no fire shelter could have protected that crew.

What is a Type 1 wildland firefighter? ›

The Firefighter Type 1 leads a small group (usually not more than seven members) and is responsible for their safety on wildland and prescribed fire incidents. The FFT1 supervises resources at the FFT2 level and reports to a Single Resource Crew Boss or other assigned supervisor.

What is the difference between a Type 1 and Type 2 hotshot crew? ›

A hotshot crew will also have at least two Senior or Lead Firefighters who are certified at the FFT1 level. Crew Experience: 80% of the crew members on a hotshot crew have at least one year of experience. While the requirement for a Type 2 IA crew is only 60%.

What is the difference between a Type 1 and Type 2 firefighter? ›

So, what is the difference between firefighter 1 and 2? The difference lies in the amount of training hours as well as the topics covered. These topics include fire behavior, firefighting theory, practical training with tools, ladder training and many more.

What is a Type 2 IA? ›

Type 2 Initial Attack (IA), The U.S. Forest Service has crews that function as a normal Type 2 crews but can form into three or four separate squads of 4 – 6 people capable to initial attack fires separately with a qualified incident commander each.

Can fire put out fire? ›

Fire can be used to fight forest fires, albeit with a certain amount of risk. A controlled burn of a strip of forest will create a barrier to an oncoming forest fire as it will use up all the available fuel.

How do you fight a forest fire? ›

Firefighters control a fire's spread (or put it out) by removing one of the three ingredients fire needs to burn: heat, oxygen, or fuel. They remove heat by applying water or fire retardant on the ground (using pumps or special wildland fire engines) or by air (using helicopters/airplanes).

What does 100 contained fire mean? ›

When officials say a fire is 100 percent contained, that does not mean it has been extinguished. It means only that firefighters have it fully surrounded by a perimeter; it could still burn for weeks or months. Once a fire is declared “controlled,” then it's over.

What do wildland firefighters do in the off season? ›

During the off-season, wildland firefighters may still work full-time as firefighters. However, seasonal wildland firefighters work during the fire season and may collect unemployment, travel, work other jobs, or further their education during the off-season.

How do you get a wildland card in fire red? ›

The Incident Qualifications Card (Red Card) certification is necessary to become qualified for wildland fire operations. Obtaining a Red Card involves a combination of classroom training, a field exercise, and in some cases, physical fitness testing.

How do I become a hotshot? ›

The path to becoming a Hotshot can vary, but it typically includes experience as a Type-2 Firefighter on a Fire Engine Module, Type 2 Handcrew, Fire Use Module, or Helitack Crew with one of the Federal land management agencies (such as the U.S. Forest Service, Bureau of Land Management, or National Park Service).

How much do wildland firefighters make in California? ›

How much does a Wildland Firefighter make in California? As of Sep 17, 2022, the average annual pay for a Wildland Firefighter in California is $31,413 a year. Just in case you need a simple salary calculator, that works out to be approximately $15.10 an hour. This is the equivalent of $604/week or $2,617/month.

Why do hotshots cut their pants? ›

Today, the shirts and pants are made of heat-resistant, synthetic aramid fabric. When exposed to flame, the fabric burns but instead of melting when the burning stops, the fabric forms a char that protects the skin. To prevent blisters, cuts, scratches and minor burns during routine firefighting.

What do wildland firefighters eat? ›

Carbohydrate-rich foods include whole-grain products, beans, rice, corn, peas, potatoes, fruit, fruit juice, milk, yogurt, energy bars, and most sport drinks. During work, firefighters need 40 grams of carbohydrate each hour from snacks and sport drinks.

How hard is the arduous pack test? ›

To complete the arduous pack test, participants must finish a three-mile hike across relatively level terrain while carrying a 45-pound pack in 45 minutes or less. An ability to complete the test in 45 minutes suggests an aerobic fitness score of 45, which is the standard for wildland firefighters.

What is a Type 2 firefighter? ›

The “Firefighter Type 2 (Crewmember)” forms the backbone of our efforts to manage or suppress wildland fire. These entry-level positions frequently work long days in hot, smoky conditions to build fire lines across rugged terrain with hand tools and chainsaws.

What is a Type 1 fire crew? ›

The Firefighter Type 1 leads a small group (usually not more than seven members) and is responsible for their safety on wildland and prescribed fire incidents. The FFT1 supervises resources at the FFT2 level and reports to a Single Resource Crew Boss or other assigned supervisor.

What are forest fire fighters called? ›

Smokejumpers – These highly-trained, experienced firefighters parachute from airplanes to provide quick initial attack on wildland fires in remote areas. USAJOBS keywords for these positions include Forestry Technician (Smokejumper), Forestry Technician.

How much do hotshots make a season? ›

As “forest fire first responders,” they also work the most hours. Hotshot crew firefighters can make $40,000 in less than six months (with overtime and hazard pay). In recent years, there has been plenty of work in the western states because of regular and aggressive wildfires.

Do you need a degree to be a hotshot? ›

Even though some hot shots have a college degree, it's possible to become one with only a high school degree or GED.

What is the difference between a smokejumper and a hotshot? ›

Smokejumpers. While Hotshots hike up to battle remote wildfires on foot, Smokejumpers parachute in. These elite wildland firefighters are most often deployed to battle wildfires in extremely remote areas, before the flames spread far enough to pose a threat.

How much are hotshot firefighters paid? ›

Hotshot Wildland Firefighter Salaries
Job TitleSalary
Sycuan Band of the Kumeyaay Nation Hotshot Wildland Firefighter salaries - 1 salaries reported$4,039/mo
National Park Service Hotshot Wildland Firefighter salaries - 1 salaries reported$4,336/mo
Usfs Hotshot Wildland Firefighter salaries - 1 salaries reported$3,641/mo
1 more row
13 Dec 2021

How much do hotshots make in CA? ›

How much does a Hotshot Driver make in California? As of Sep 3, 2022, the average annual pay for a Hotshot Driver in California is $64,458 a year. Just in case you need a simple salary calculator, that works out to be approximately $30.99 an hour. This is the equivalent of $1,239/week or $5,371/month.

How much do Smokejumpers make in California? ›

A smokejumper earns around $16.00 per hour while a smokejumper foreman earns about $24.00 per hour. Smokejumpers are paid nothing extra for making parachute jumps; however, they do receive hazard pay equivalent to 25 percent of their base pay when working on an uncontrolled wildfire.

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