Vertical ventilation: A firefighter’s ladder-to-roof guide (2022)

Back to basics – sounding and walking on the roof, using roof ladders, working from an aerial, cutting the hole and punching through

Vertical ventilation is an essential and effective fireground tactic.

For well over 100 years, vertical ventilation has been used by the fire service, proven as a viable ventilation method on thousands of incidents across America and beyond. In fact, it has long been considered the optimal method of ventilation.

In some departments, it is still the best option due to budget constraints that would prohibit the purchase of positive-pressure ventilation (PPV) fans. And depending on what the fire conditions are, it may literally be the only option.

Vertical ventilation: A firefighter’s ladder-to-roof guide (1)

True story: The ladder truck gets it done

A ladder company was traveling down a tight residential street, when they rolled up on a wood-frame residential structure with heavy smoke pumping from every crack in the building. The humidity was high that morning. The smoke was initially lifting and then falling to the ground level, making it difficult to see even while outside the building.

Neighbors and other bystanders were yelling and pointing at the house, indicating that there were children inside.

The ladder company officer radioed dispatch, advised them of the fire and requested a box alarm, all while trying to gear up as quickly as possible.

Once the crew was geared up, they attempted a primary search. The crew entered a door on the bravo side. As the officer made entry into the zero-visibility conditions, he quickly began to run into items not typically found inside one’s residence – first a mattress on the floor right in the entryway, then a shopping cart, then a push-mower, then rolled-up cyclone fencing.

As the company officer continued on, it felt like he was also walking upward, not like a run of stairs, but more like a mountain of garbage. Soon the officer’s helmet bumped the ceiling.

The officer stopped and asked himself, “Do I continue on or do I abandon the search?” At this point, the company officer is no more than 10-12 feet inside the doorway, and they were still the only company on location.

Vertical ventilation: A firefighter’s ladder-to-roof guide (2)

(Video) Vertical ventilation A firefighter’s ladder to roof guide

The officer decided to abandon the search, opting for vertical ventilation.

As the company returned to the alpha side to retrieve the necessary equipment to perform vertical ventilation, the officer saw that the ladder company chauffeur had already set everything up to make access to the roof – and the vent saw was already running.

The crew grabbed the saw from the chauffeur and climbed the ladder. The crew cut a nice-sized hole on the pitched roof, and heavy smoke began pumping out. As the crew left the roof, heavy fire began showing from the hole.

The ladder company then re-entered the residence. As the company walked through the house – yes, walked – they could see clear as day, that is, until they made it to the kitchen. The entire stove, sink, cabinet and pantry area was free-burning, and all the products of combustion were exiting directly through the ventilation hole the crew had just cut.

The company officer and crew finished the primary search and exited the residence to retrieve some pump cans to initiate extinguishment, while at the same time, the first engine company arrived on scene. The ladder company officer directed the engine company officer to the kitchen and the fire was quickly extinguished.

What is vertical ventilation?

Vertical ventilation is the removal of super-heated toxic gases and smoke by allowing it to take its natural traveling path – UP!

Fire companies make this possible by accessing the roof with a ladder, saws and other tools, and making an opening on the roof’s exterior, then punching the ceiling out with another tool. The final outcome of this tactic is that the super-heated smoke and toxic gases exit the building on their own. Vent crews simply provide the path of least resistance by cutting a hole in the roof decking large enough to release any products of combustion under pressure while confined within the structure.

Vertical ventilation: A firefighter’s ladder-to-roof guide (3)

Recommendations for the company officer

Most members will receive minimal training, including hands-on training, before going to the roof for their first time. Let’s train them to be safe. Let’s train them for that experience right here.

Training at this level is the company officer’s responsibility. The company officer needs to start by explaining every aspect of when, how and why the crew will perform vertical ventilation.

The company officer leads the way on this tactic, and they are responsible for training their crew to the level needed to complete the task safely. Every action must be explained and practiced over and over until there is complete understanding. It starts with the training, but once on scene, the company officer should assume the position of a formal roof safety officer.

The officer decides how the roof will be accessed and where the ladder will go, the path the crew will travel when walking on the roof, and where the hole will be cut. The company officer then supervises the crew doing the actual cutting, making sure they do not walk on their cuts, that they do not step off the roof, and that they do not walk anywhere that has not been checked for weakness.

(Video) NFA Pitched Roof Ventilation

Vertical ventilation: A firefighter’s ladder-to-roof guide (4)

Sounding the roof

Sounding the roof should not be accomplished with a size 10 boot. If your boot goes through, you are already in trouble. Sounding the roof is also not accomplished by simply tapping an axe head inches in front of each step taken.

Sounding should be accomplished with a 6-, 8- or 10-foot roofhook or other tool with some length to it. The idea is to drive the tool head through the roof as you walk to the location where ventilation is to take place. Again, you want to strike the surface of the roof, not tap it.

When the tool that is 6, 8 or 10 feet out in front of you goes through the roof decking, STOP. Maybe even take a step back and then have the crew start cutting.

Walking on the roof

When walking on a pitched roof, we want to walk on the strongest areas as much as possible. The strongest areas of a roof are the ridges and valleys. This is where the lumber is reinforced with beams. However, keep in mind that many of today’s modern peaked roofs do not have a ridge board at all. It is important that every crewmember follows the officer sounding the roof and that they not stray from the path.

When the officer decides where to cut, they will also sound out a safe working area on the decking that the fire crew should not go beyond. The officer will then observe and ensure the safety of the crew as they work on opening the roof.

Roof ladders

Roof ladders make working on the roof much safer. Even on sketchy or questionable roofs, vertical ventilation can still be accomplished because the roof ladder will support the entirety of the firefighter’s weight and spread it evenly between the ridge and load-bearing exterior wall.

If staffing allows, a second roof ladder is better. This allows two members to cut a single, but bigger, ventilation hole without ever stepping foot onto the roof.

Roof ladders are not always an option, though, sometimes due to roof design. Proper sounding techniques become imperative in these situations.

Working from an aerial device

Working from an aerial device is also a good option, if available. This method requires even more training, however, to be efficient and effective. It requires coordination between the firefighter doing the actual cutting and the operator at the turntable. I have seen good outcomes from crews that train regularly; unfortunately, I have also seen fine examples of a complete waste of time and resources.

Vertical ventilation: A firefighter’s ladder-to-roof guide (6)

(Video) Vertical Ventilation Techniques

Cutting the hole

There are many ways to cut a hole in the roof decking. My advice is to keep it simple. Avoid the new techniques you might find on random YouTube channels directing you to reposition your feet or walk around a lot or even techniques that require you to pull the saw out of the decking more times than you would actually cut.

Always shoot for a bigger hole. A 4 x 4-foot hole gets you a 16-square-foot hole, whereas a 6 x 6 gets you a 36-square-foot hole.

There’s a saying among firefighters regarding ventilation holes. In one’s head and in the textbooks, a hole should start of at 4 x 4 minimum. Well, the higher the roof and the steeper the pitch of that roof, combined with actual fire conditions, the smaller the ventilation hole gets. This is due to lack of proper training and experience, plus a real presence of fear or discomfort.

When cutting, you want to watch the depth of your bar or blade for two reasons: 1) We do not want to cut through any supporting members under the decking, and 2) we do not want to pick up or draw in any wiring or ductwork that may be fastened to the underside of the decking in a low-pitched roof. Picking up the wiring inside ductwork will put a complete stop to what should have been an otherwise quick operation. You will now be forced to use that pick-head axe we all hope someone remembered to bring in cases like this.

A little trick to save some time or make the vent hole bigger: If you see a ridge vent installed on a peaked roof, do not waste time in making a top cut. Your vertical cuts will be enough. The top of the decking is no longer attached to the ridge board, only to the rafters. Instead, add that top cut to your vertical cuts for a larger hole with the same number of cuts.

Punching through

Ventilation is not complete until you punch through the ceiling. The ceiling must be opened to allow the smoke and heat to enter the attic space then exit the vent hole.

Proper tool selection is important here. You need a tool heavy enough to make easy work of the job and with a big enough surface area to remove large sections at a time. A simple pike pole would not be my first choice for this function. A roofhook or trash hook would be a good choice.

Also, sizing-up the roof comes into play with the tool selection for this function.

The steeper the pitch of the roof, the longer your tool selection will need to be. You do not want to be on the roof with your favorite 6-foot roofhook when you need a 10-foot roofhook.

Some roof pitches will require the ceiling to be opened from the inside to allow for venting.

Coordinated attack

Today’s definition of coordinated attack is a little different than in years past.

In the past, the idea of vertical ventilation was to allow the pressurized smoke and heated air to escape before sending in the attack crew, making conditions safer by providing visibility and even preventing a backdraft. This also allowed for a more rapid advance to the seat of the fire.

Research coordinated by both NIST and UL hasprovided firefighters evidence to guide flow path management decisions.Vertical ventilation is part and parcel to this discussion. The timing for the decision to provide vertical ventilation does need to be carefully coordinated with the engine company.In locales with close-in companies, or where robust engine and truck crews arrive together, early vertical ventilation is a great strategy to improve conditions for the rapidly advancing engine crew, who will immediately apply water.

(Video) Tile Roof Operations

In locales where staffing is at a premium, early vertical ventilation in the absence of a ready hoseline could mean the difference between salvaging part of the building or ending up with a parking lot.

Experience and training along with crew size andcrew integrity will be critical to the ventilate/not-ventilate decision and/or the decision on whether to go to the roof.

Tactically aware means safe

Vertical ventilation has been one of the fundamental tactics since the dawn of modern firefighting.

It is as simplistic in use as a smoothbore nozzle. If you open a smoothbore nozzle, the water comes out based on the size of the tip and pressure at the pump. It’s that basic.

If you ventilate the roof, the smoke and heat come out at a rate equivalent to the size of the opening and pressure inside the house.

The only reason to fear vertical ventilation is for lack of training and understanding. Our members must be trained for complete understanding – understanding when vertical ventilation is needed, determining if the roof is safe to operate on, understanding the method of access, knowing the methods that are going to be used to actually cut the ventilation hole and looking for ways to make vertical ventilation safer.

Let’s train our members to be safe, comfortable and tactically aware of vertical ventilation operations.

[Read next: Training time: A company officer’s guide for avoiding risk]

[Next: Take the quiz: How much do you know about vertical ventilation?]

About the author

Chris DelBello is a 31-year veteran of the fire service. He currently holds the rank of senior captain with the Houston Fire Department, working in the Midtown District. He is also the district training officer, which encompasses all the stations in downtown and midtown. DelBello holds a Training Officer II certification and serves as anadjunct instructor with Houston Community College. Connect with DelBello via email.

(Video) How Firefighter's leg went through the Roof

  1. Tags
  2. Aerial
  3. Apparatus
  4. Company Officer Development
  5. Education and Training
  6. Fire Apparatus
  7. Fire Department Management
  8. Incident Management
  9. Live-Fire Training
  10. Radios
  11. Roof Collapse
  12. Roof Operations
  13. Roof Safety
  14. Safety
  15. Technical Rescue
  16. Ventilation

FAQs

What is an example of vertical ventilation? ›

There are a few techniques for getting to the roof to vertically ventilate—for example, an extension ladder and a roof ladder, an extension ladder and two roof ladders, an aerial device and roof ladder, etc.

Where do you place a ladder for ventilation? ›

When placing ground ladders to the roof, it is done typically to facilitate a roof report and likely vertical ventilation; both cases are associated with fire attack and ventilation. In these situations, place the ground ladder tip three to four rungs above the edge of the roof.

What is the importance of vertical ventilation? ›

The advantage to vertical ventilation is found in basic fire behavior. Due to convection, the first choice of heat is to travel straight up. Vertical ventilation allows this natural movement to occur and is, consequently, the most effective form of ventilation.

Why did the firefighters break through the roof? ›

Firefighters may go ahead of the fire on a roof, cut holes to access the attic and stop the fire from spreading. By venting the window of a room that's on fire, it actually helps to contain the fire to the room of origin. Otherwise heated gases spread throughout the inside of a structure.

How do you do vertical ventilation? ›

Vertical ventilation is the removal of super-heated toxic gases and smoke by allowing it to take its natural traveling path – UP! Fire companies make this possible by accessing the roof with a ladder, saws and other tools, and making an opening on the roof's exterior, then punching the ceiling out with another tool.

When performing vertical roof ventilation where do you cut the hole in the roof and why? ›

The company officer should walk as close to over the seat of the fire as is safe, make a 90-degree turn and sound the area that's to be cut, which is usually near the peak as high up on the roof as possible.

Where do you cut for vertical ventilation? ›

Cutting a hole in the roof is the best way to accommodate the need for quick ventilation. Sometimes a series of holes is needed to ventilate effectively. Before we go the roof to cut our hole, we need to consider a few items; Where is the fire located?

What is the 4 to 1 ladder rule? ›

The base of the ladder should be placed so that it is one foot away from the building for every four feet of hight to where the ladder rests against the building. This is known as the 4 to 1 rule.

What is a safety guideline for working with ladders? ›

(two hands and a foot, or two feet and a hand) con- tact on the ladder when climbing. Keep your body near the middle of the step and always face the ladder while climbing (see diagram). Only use ladders and appro- priate accessories (ladder levelers, jacks or hooks) for their designed purposes.

How do you ventilate a roof firefighting? ›

Vertical Ventilation Techniques : Panelized Roof - YouTube

Which is correct procedure when cutting a ventilation opening in a roof? ›

Which is correct procedure when cutting a ventilation opening in a roof? Several small holes distributed over the fire area are better than one large hole. Use preexisting openings only when there is no alternative.

How do you vent a roof for firefighting? ›

Step-by-step: Open the roof; knock the decking or boards out of the hole; communicate with attack crews; push the ceiling down to vent the interior; tell command via radio that “the roof is opened”; and get off the roof. This part of their job is done, for now, and there's plenty more left to do on the fireground.

Why do they wait to put water on a fire? ›

Water cools and smothers the fire at the same time. It cools it so much that it can't burn anymore, and it smothers it so that it can't make any more of the oxygen in the air explode. You can also put out a fire by smothering it with dirt, sand, or any other covering that cuts the fire off from its oxygen source.

Why do firemen knock out windows in? ›

Venting the window (horizontal ventilation) of a room that is on fire, actually helps to contain the fire within that room of origin. Otherwise heated gases spread throughout the inside of the house. Breaking the window really prevents a great deal more damage than it appears to cause.

What problems do rising roofs introduce for fire fighters? ›

Such hazards for firefighters caused by a rooftop PV system include: electrical shock, slips and falls, electrical arcing roof collapse, and fire risks from the PV materials.

What differences are there between horizontal and vertical ventilation? ›

Vertical ventilation takes place through holes cut in the roof, typically by truck companies during the early stages of a fire in a process known collectively as roof operations, while horizontal ventilation usually takes place through doors and windows.

What are the types of ventilation in firefighting? ›

There are two types of ventilation that are used during structural firefighting operations: vertical ventilation and horizontal or lateral ventilation. Using both types of ventilation techniques simultaneously makes for a safer, more effective operation.

What is the greatest risk to firefighters performing vertical ventilation? ›

What is the greatest danger to fire fighters performing vertical ventilation? Roof collapse? Where is water directed during hydraulic ventilation? Out a window or door.

What is fire ventilation and which among those fire ventilation systems is the best to use? ›

Smoke ventilation systems are best suited for roofs, smoke shafts, corridors, and stairwells. A well-engineered smoke control system like this can be valuable in a fire emergency as it will allow the occupants to evacuate the building with minimal risk of smoke inhalation.

How do you vent a pitched roof? ›

Pitched roof spaces should have ventilation openings at eaves level to promote cross-ventilation. These openings should have an area on opposite sides at least equivalent to continuous ventilation, running the full length of the eaves and 10mm wide (see diagram a).

What is a primary reason for performing tactical ventilation? ›

Tactical ventilation reduces fire damage in structures and limits water damage because it: increases speed with which interior fires can be extinguished.

How do you cut a vent hole? ›

How to Cut an Air Vent in a Wood Floor
  1. Place your vent in place on the floor where you want to cut the hole. ...
  2. Insert a 1/2-inch drill bit into a drill/driver. ...
  3. Insert the blade of the reciprocating saw into the hole. ...
  4. Back the saw up 1 inch. ...
  5. Insert the blade back into the hole. ...
  6. Drop the air vent into the hole.

When should you ventilate a house fire? ›

Consider ventilating the second floor as soon as possible. When the fire is on the second floor, ventilate this floor first. If possible, start by ventilating the outside windows of the room of origin first and coordinate the movement of air within the structure.

What is size up in firefighting? ›

Size-up is defined in most fire service texts as the on going evaluation of problems confronted within a fire situation. Size-up starts with the receipt of an alarm and continues until the fire is under control. This process is carried out many times and by many different individuals at each fire or emergency event.

What is the 421 rule using a ladder? ›

The 4-to-1 rule is a ladder safety rule. It states that four every 4 feet you climb up a ladder, you should move the ladder 1 foot away from the wall or vertical surface on which it's placed. If you climb 8 feet up a ladder, for example, you should move it 2 feet away from the wall or vertical surface.

What is the minimum length the ladder must be to reach the roof? ›

The ladder must be at least 9.8 ×| feet long to reach the roof of the house.

What is the maximum height you can work off a ladder? ›

What is the maximum height a ladder can be used? There is no maximum height for using a ladder. However, where a ladder rises 9 metres or more above its base, landing areas or rest platforms should be provided at suitable intervals.

What are 4 safety rules guidelines for extension ladders? ›

To use a portable ladder safely, one must use the five rules for ladder safety:
  1. Select the Right Ladder for the Job. Use the ladder as it is designed to be used. ...
  2. Inspect the Ladder Before Use. ...
  3. Set Up the Ladder with Care. ...
  4. Climb and Descend Ladders Cautiously. ...
  5. Use Safe Practices When Working on a Ladder.
15 Mar 2022

What are the types of ventilation? ›

There are three methods that may be used to ventilate a building: natural, mechanical and hybrid (mixed-mode) ventilation.

What ventilation technique should be used for a basement fire? ›

Thermal buoyancy can be better utilized through vertical fire ventilation. A special case with vertical fire ventilation is in the case of basement fires. Since basements are below ground level, ventilation will normally always be vertical.

What is vented roof? ›

Roof ventilation allows air to flow through the attic space, escaping through the roof vents. Properly installed roof vents will prevent the roof from overheating. They also prevent condensation from developing. When the roof overheats or moisture builds up, this can lead to substantial damage or health risks.

What is an example of vertical ventilation? ›

There are a few techniques for getting to the roof to vertically ventilate—for example, an extension ladder and a roof ladder, an extension ladder and two roof ladders, an aerial device and roof ladder, etc.

When breaking a window for ventilation The ladder should be placed upwind with the tip placed where? ›

Note: The ladder must be positioned on the windward side of the opening with the tip of the ladder at the same level of the window or slightly higher. This keeps you out of the way of smoke, heat and falling glass. 2.

Which type of ventilation opening is used to start fire spread in a long narrow building? ›

While most of these ventilation tasks are in support of an offensive attack, the trench cut is certainly not one of them. The trench cut (otherwise known as "strip ventilation") is a long narrow ventilation hole that acts as a fire break on the roof of a structure that is being attacked by fire.

Where do you place a ladder for ventilation? ›

When placing ground ladders to the roof, it is done typically to facilitate a roof report and likely vertical ventilation; both cases are associated with fire attack and ventilation. In these situations, place the ground ladder tip three to four rungs above the edge of the roof.

What is the importance of vertical ventilation? ›

The advantage to vertical ventilation is found in basic fire behavior. Due to convection, the first choice of heat is to travel straight up. Vertical ventilation allows this natural movement to occur and is, consequently, the most effective form of ventilation.

Why do firefighters vent the roof? ›

When a hole is made in the roof, and the building is “vented,” the smoke and gases escape because heat and smoke rise. It increases the victim's chance for survival and makes it much easier for the firefighters in the building to see.

Can boiling water put out fire? ›

Boiling water can extinguishes fire more quickly. The hot water sprinkled on the burning material is not only for cooling, but also for reducing the oxygen around it with converted steam. Cold water to absorb a lot of heat. As others mentioned already, heat is one of the component to remove to extinguish a fire.

Does baking soda put out fires? ›

Pour on Baking Soda - Baking soda will extinguish grease fires, but only if they're small. It takes a lot of baking soda to do the job. Spray the Pot with a Class B Dry Chemical Fire Extinguisher - This is your last resort, as fire extinguishers will contaminate your kitchen.

Should you throw water on fire? ›

1. You should never throw water on an electrical fire because water conducts electricity and you could be electrocuted. 2. If you don't have a fire extinguisher, you can use baking soda to extinguish an electrical fire.

Can firefighters smash car windows? ›

Firefighters can and will smash car windows to run the hose through, and it appears going through a car is notably better for water pressure than trying to go under, over, or around the vehicle.

What happens if you break a window during a fire? ›

"In a house fire, don't break out the windows thinking you might give the trapped occupants more air — it only increases the fire's development and intensity," David Icove, fire investigator and professor at the University of Tennessee's Tickle College of Engineering, told INSIDER.

Which class of roof is effective against a severe fire exposure? ›

This standard includes three classes of fire exposure: • Class A roof coverings, which are effective against severe fire test exposures • Class B roof coverings, which are effective against moderate fire test exposures • Class C roof coverings, which are effective against light fire test exposures.

Why do they open the roof in a fire? ›

High temperature smoke is particularly dangerous. By opening a large hole in the roof heat and smoke can quickly be removed from the structure. This rapidly improves conditions inside the building, hastening fire suppression.

What is considered a high-rise NFPA? ›

High-rise buildings are defined by NFPA 1 and NFPA 101 buildings where the floor of an occupiable story is greater than 75 ft above the lowest level of fire department vehicle access.

How do you distinguish vertical ventilation from horizontal ventilation? ›

Vertical ventilation takes place through holes cut in the roof, typically by truck companies during the early stages of a fire in a process known collectively as roof operations, while horizontal ventilation usually takes place through doors and windows.

What are the types of ventilation in firefighting? ›

There are two types of ventilation that are used during structural firefighting operations: vertical ventilation and horizontal or lateral ventilation. Using both types of ventilation techniques simultaneously makes for a safer, more effective operation.

What is horizontal ventilation? ›

It can include that tool, but horizontal ventilation basically means that we force the smoke, heat and gases out of the building through windows and not a hole in the roof. In my experience, it is also the method most used. Here are some things to consider when we ventilate horizontally.

What is fire service ventilation? ›

Ventilation Defined

We've all heard the basic definition of ventilation: “the systematic removal or heat, smoke and fire gases from a structure” with the associated benefits of victim survivability, increased visibility, reducing fire spread, etc.

Which is correct procedure when cutting a ventilation opening in a roof? ›

Which is correct procedure when cutting a ventilation opening in a roof? Several small holes distributed over the fire area are better than one large hole. Use preexisting openings only when there is no alternative.

What are the types of ventilation? ›

There are three methods that may be used to ventilate a building: natural, mechanical and hybrid (mixed-mode) ventilation.

What is the greatest risk to fire fighters performing vertical ventilation? ›

What is the greatest danger to fire fighters performing vertical ventilation? Roof collapse? Where is water directed during hydraulic ventilation? Out a window or door.

What are three types of ventilation systems used in the workplace? ›

There are three main types of industrial ventilation: Natural Ventilation. Diluting General Ventilation. Exhaust Ventilation.

What is the top priority for ventilation in this fire? ›

Ventilation should begin as close to the room of origin as possible. Open or remove those windows in the room of origin that are closest to the fire. Prioritize the removal/opening of windows to those where flames or pressurized smoke is already coming out of or where fire is visible or audible.

Which is the best to use among those fire ventilation systems? ›

Smoke ventilation systems are best suited for roofs, smoke shafts, corridors, and stairwells. A well-engineered smoke control system like this can be valuable in a fire emergency as it will allow the occupants to evacuate the building with minimal risk of smoke inhalation.

How do you do horizontal ventilation? ›

The traditional method of mechanical horizontal ventilation is by negative pressure using smoke ejectors. These types of fans are set up in windows and in doorways and are used to draw the smoke, heat, and hot gases out from the structure by creating a negative pressure within the structure.

What is forced ventilation? ›

A type of building ventilation system that uses fans or blowers to provide fresh air to rooms when the forces of air pressure and gravity are not enough to circulate air through a building.

What is cross ventilation? ›

Cross-ventilation pertains to wind, fresh air or a breeze entering through an opening (namely a window) that flows directly through the occupied space and out through an opening on the opposite side of the building, where the air pressure is lower, whereby creating a flow of cool air and as well as a current of air ...

Why is it important to vent a fire? ›

We use fire ventilation to: Reduce the impact of fire gases and heat on trapped persons, and to facilitate their evacuation from the building. Facilitate the fire and rescue operation by reducing the thermal load, and to improve visibility in the building for the fire fighting crew.

When should the fire be ventilated? ›

Fire ventilation should be implemented as soon as pos- sible during the fire and rescue operation. If the fire is fully developed in one or more rooms, it is very often better to focus on fire ventilation of the adjacent rooms where the fire has not yet spread.

How does ventilation work in a house? ›

Exhaust ventilation systems work by depressurizing your home. The system exhausts air from the house while make-up air infiltrates through leaks in the building shell and through intentional, passive vents. Exhaust ventilation systems are most appropriate for cold climates.

Videos

1. Introduction to Vertical Ventilation
(Los Angeles County Fire Department)
2. Vertical Ventilation roof
(Florida Firefighter PO)
3. Houston Fire Vertical Ventilation
(Chris Kelly)
4. Vertical Ventilation - Traversing a Roof and Communications
(Bend Fire Department Training Division)
5. Steep pitch vertical ventilation
(Truck11 Training)
6. Milwaukee Method for Peaked-Roof Structures
(Fire Engineering)

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