Revision date: October 15, 2013
There are two data files with this data set in (.txt) format. The files contain net primary productivity (NPP) data and climate data for a mature tropical lowland rainforest at the La Selva Biological Station, Costa Rica. The La Selva forest reserve (10.43 N, 83.98 W) covers over 1,500 ha, of which 53% is primary forest and the rest is in various types of secondary forest and abandoned land.
Above- and below-ground biomass, litterfall, root production, and nutrient content of different vegetation components and soils were determined in different areas of the biological station on different occasions between 1975 and 1994. Work has continued to the present day. Precipitation (1984-1997) and maximum/minimum temperature (1992-1997) were measured at the forest study site.
NPP has not been completely estimated although detailed data on forest dynamics are available from a variety of published and unpublished sources. A crude minimum estimate of NPP for La Selva was obtained by summing the estimates of litterfall [850 g/m2/year predicted for average annual temperature and precipitation conditions at La Selva by the equation of Brown and Lugo (1982)] and unpublished data on root production (550-1,250 g/m2/year), giving a NPP range of about 1,400-2,100 g/m2/year.
Revision Notes: The NPP data file has been revised to add additional root biomass estimates, correct temporal coverage of data series, correct parameter label for potassium concentration in leaf litterfall, and add additional References/Comments. Please see the Data Set Revisions section of this document for detailed information.
Figure 1. View across the forest canopy at La Selvafrom an emergent tree Pithecellobium elegans (Photograph taken 21stFebruary 1998 by Alan Campbell).
The NPP data collection contains field measurements of biomass, estimated NPP, and climate data for terrestrial grassland, tropical forest, boreal forest, and tundra sites worldwide. Data were compiled from the published literature for intensively studied and well-documented individual field sites and from a number of previously compiled multi-site, multi-biome data sets of georeferenced NPP estimates. The principal compilation effort (Olson et al., 2001) was sponsored bythe NASA Terrestrial Ecology Program. For more information, please visitthe NPP web site at http://daac.ornl.gov/NPP/npp_home.html.
Other Data Access Links:
Additional site ancillary data for La Selva are available on the FLUXNET project web site (http://fluxnet.ornl.gov/) and the AmeriFluxNetwork web site (http://public.ornl.gov/ameriflux/). Investigators collected data on sitevegetation, soil, hydrologic, and meteorological characteristics at the flux tower sites as well as observations of ecosystem level exchanges of CO2, water, energy and momentum spanning diurnal, synoptic, seasonal, and interannual time scales.
Cite this data set as follows:
Clark, D.A. 2013. NPP Tropical Forest: La Selva, Costa Rica, 1975-1994, R1. Data set. Available on-line [http://daac.ornl.gov] from Oak Ridge National Laboratory Distributed Active Archive Center, Oak Ridge, Tennessee, USA. doi:10.3334/ORNLDAAC/218
This data set was originally published as:
Clark, D. A. 1998. NPP Tropical Forest: La Selva, Costa Rica, 1969-1985. Data set. Available on-line [http://daac.ornl.gov] from Oak Ridge National Laboratory Distributed Active Archive Center, Oak Ridge, Tennessee, U.S.A.
Table of Contents:
- 1 Data Set Overview
- 2 Data Description
- 3 Applications and Derivation
- 4 Quality Assessment
- 5 Acquisition Materials and Methods
- 6 Data Access
- 7 References
- 8 Data Set Revisions
1. Data Set Overview:
Project: Net Primary Productivity (NPP)
The NPP estimate presented here is a crude minimum estimate based on measurements of litterfall and unpublished data on root production.
Biomass and nutrient content of different vegetation components and soil have been determined for a tropical lowland rainforest at the La Selva Biological Station, Costa Rica, which is owned and operated by the Organisation for Tropical Studies (OTS), a consortium of Costa Rican, Puerto Rican, and U.S. universities and research institutions. The earliest studies date from 1969, and work has continued to the present day.
Situated about 100-km north of San Jose, near the town of Puerto Viejo, the La Selva study site (10.43 N, 83.98 W) covers over 1,500 ha, of which 53% is primary forest and the rest is in various types of secondary forest and abandoned land. La Selva has been managed and enlarged as a research reserve since 1968, when it was bought by OTS. In danger of becoming an island of forest surrounded by pasture and cultivated land, La Selva was successfully connected to the larger Braulio Carrillo National Park to the south in 1986. Further details on La Selva are available on the web pages maintained by the OTS in Costa Rica.
NPP has not been completely estimated although detailed data on forest dynamics are available from a variety of published and unpublished sources. Above- and below ground biomass, litterfall, and nutrient concentrations in soils and litter have been measured in different areas of the La Selva forest on several occasions (McDade et al., 1994). Enough information has been accumulated to permit a substantive treatment of the composition and ecology of the rainforest. A crude minimum estimate of NPP for La Selva was obtained by summing the estimates of litterfall [850 g/m2/year predicted for average annual temperature and precipitation conditions at La Selva by the equation of Brown and Lugo (1982)] and unpublished data on root production (550-1,250 g/m2/year), giving a range of about 1,400-2,100 g/m2/year (1,750 g/m2/year average).
Above-ground NPP (ANPP), below-ground NPP (BNPP), and total NPP (TNPP) values reported in Scurlock and Olson (2013) and Olson et al. (2013a; b) agree with estimates provided in this data set.
A new long-term NPP study (the Carbono project) commenced in September 1997 (preliminary above-ground biomass from 1994 included in this data set). Eighteen 0.5-ha plots were stratified across La Selva's major edaphic gradients, and on-going measurements include: tree mortality and recruitment, above-ground biomass increment, fine litterfall, fine woody litterfall, annual input of coarse woody debris, and fine root biomass (0-50 cm depth). Soil organic carbon stocks have been assessed on the two principal soil types, soil respiration has been measured biweekly since March 1998, and forest carbon exchange was studied with continuous eddy covariance measurements from an above-canopy tower for 4 years (1997-2000). For additional information, please visit the FLUXNET project web site (http://fluxnet.ornl.gov/) and the AmeriFluxNetwork web site (http://public.ornl.gov/AmeriFlux/).
2. Data Description:
Site: La Selva, Costa Rica
Site Boundaries: (All latitude and longitude given in decimal degrees)
|Site (Region)||Westernmost Longitude||Easternmost Longitude||Northernmost Latitude||Southernmost Latitude||Elevation (m)|
|La Selva, Costa Rica||-83.98||-83.98||10.43||10.43||35-135|
Above-ground biomass measurements were made on different occasions from 1983 through 1994. Litterfall was collected during separate studies: 1979-1980 and 1983-1984. Soil nitrogen mineralization measurements were made from October 1983 until October 1984. Available phosphorus in soils was estimated in April, July, and November 1984 and in January 1985. Root biomass and production were measured in separate studies between 1975 and 1994. Precipitation data are available April 1984-April 1997. Maximum/minimum temperature data are available March 1992-April 1997.
Biomass measurements were made on several occasions (see Data Acquisition Materials and Methods section). Litterfall and soil nitrogen mineralization was measured monthly. Climate data are expressed as monthly and annual precipitation amounts (mm) and monthly and annual average maximum/minimum temperature (C).
Data File Information
Table 1. Data files in this data set archive
|FILE NAME||TEMPORAL COVERAGE||FILE CONTENTS|
|slv_npp_r1.txt||1975/01/01-1994/12/31||Above- and below-ground biomass, litterfall, root production, and nutrient content of vegetation and soils measured in different areas of the primary rainforest on different occasions at La Selva, Costa Rica|
|slv_cli.txt||1984/04/01-1997/04/30||Mean monthly and annual precipitation data from the "East Bank" weather station at the La Selva tropical forest study site.|
|1992/03/01-1997/04/30||Mean monthly and annual maximum/minimum temperature data from the "East Bank" weather station at the La Selva tropical forest study site.|
NPP Data. NPP estimates for the La Selva site are provided in one file (.txt format). The variable values are delimited by semicolons. The first 18 lines are metadata; data records begin on line 19. The value -999.9 is used to denote missing values. Biomass and NPP units are in g/m2 and g/m2/year (dry matter weight), respectively.
Table 2. Column headings in NPP file
|Site||Site where data were gathered (code refers to site identification)||Text|
|Treatmt||Indicates (1) location of study plots within study site (none refers to unspecified location) or (2) soil type in study plot||Text|
|Year||Year in which data were collected||Numeric|
|Month||Month in which data were collected|
|Day||Day on which data were collected|
|parameter||Parameters measured (see definitions in Table 3)||Text|
|units||Unit of measure||Text|
|References/Comments||Reference to primary and secondary data sources and/or explanatory comments||Text|
Table 3. Parameter definitions in NPP file
|AGbiomass||Above-ground maximum living biomass measured in different areas on different occasions (see Materials and Methods section)||g/m2|
|fineroots||Fine root biomass (< 5 mm) in mature rainforest|
|Totroots||Total root biomass|
|roots||Root biomass in three root diameter size classes (< 2 mm, 2 < 5 mm, and > 5 mm) for mature rainforest|
|litter||Standing stock of soil surface litter|
|Totlittfall||Total litter fall dry mass; rates measured in different areas on different occasions (see Materials and Methods section)||g/m2/year|
|leaflittfall||Leaf litter fall rates measured in different areas on different occasions (see Materials and Methods section); monthly values extracted from graph in source cited||g/m2/year; g/m2/month|
|finerootprodn||Fine root (< 2 mm diameter) production; annual production values derived from 10-month study in a residual soil plot (1,040 g/m2/10 months) and an alluvial soil plot (460 g/m2/10 months)||g/m2/year|
|Totlittfall-N||Nitrogen content of total litter fall dry mass||g/m2/year|
|leaflitter-P||Phosphorus concentration in freshly fallen litter; derived from an inverse of the dry biomass / nutrient ratio of 2024; doubled to account for moisture loss when dried||ppm|
|leaflittfall-K||Potassium content of leaf litter fall for a drought-deciduous forest (MAP 1500 mm) on an old alluvial terrace||g/m2/year|
|leaflitter-C/N||Dry mass carbon / nitrogen ratio in freshly fallen leaf litter; derived from dry organic matter biomass / nitrogen biomass ratio in primary source (1 g biomass = 0.5 g C)||dimensionless|
|leafdecomp(k)||Exponential decay constants for leaf litter decomposition (dry mass loss) for confined leaves of Pentaclethra macroloba and Bursera simaruba||dimensionless|
|netNmin||Annual net nitrogen mineralization in soils of mature intact forest; sum of monthly estimates for mineralization in the field, adjusted for bulk density||g/m2/year|
|soil-P||Available phosphorus in soils of mature intact forest; mean of samples from four monthly collections||ppm|
Note: Data sources are given in the NPP file.
Sample NPP Data Record
slv; OTSplots; 1989; -999.9; -999.9; AGbiomass; 18300; g/m2; Clark and Clark (2000)
slv; Carbono; 1994; -999.9; -999.9; AGbiomass; 16100; g/m2; Clark and Clark (2000)
slv; Vegmap; 1994; -999.9; -999.9; AGbiomass; 18600; g/m2; Clark and Clark (2000)
slv; none; 1983; -999.9; -999.9; AGbiomass; 22100; g/m2; McDade et al. (1994) ...
Climate Data. The climate data set is an ASCII file (.txt format). The first 18 lines are metadata; data records begin on line 19. The variable values are delimited by semi-colons. The value -999.9 is used to denote missing values.
Sample Climate Data Record
slv ;mean;prec; 202.35; 198.82; 136.32; 119.36; 352.55; 393.66; 464.78; 459.32; 374.68; 380.12; 368.42; 357.41; 3824.36
slv ;mean;tmax; 29.98; 29.46; 30.78; 31.85; 31.76; 31.28; 30.08; 30.74; 31.44; 31.62; 30.38; 29.76; 32.25
slv ;mean;tmin; 19.70; 20.00; 20.28; 21.48; 22.32; 22.64; 22.46; 22.04; 22.12; 21.96; 21.76; 21.02; 19.55
slv ;numb;prec; 13; 13; 13; 14; 13; 13; 13; 13; 13; 13; 13; 13; 12
slv ;numb;tmax; 5; 5; 6; 6; 5; 5; 5; 5; 5; 5; 5; 5; 4
slv ;numb;tmin; 5; 5; 6; 6; 5; 5; 5; 5; 5; 5; 5; 5; 4
slv ;stdv;prec; 129.31; 137.36; 78.79; 71.10; 142.71; 124.44; 165.26; 156.01; 127.81; 108.90; 126.97; 163.44; 528.07
slv ;stdv;tmax; 0.76; 0.72; 0.63; 0.70; 0.42; 0.97; 0.88; 0.93; 0.68; 0.48; 0.57; 0.86; 0.57
slv ;stdv;tmin; 0.55; 0.69; 0.40; 0.45; 0.26; 0.17; 0.17; 0.36; 0.33; 0.32; 0.18; 0.08; 0.37
slv ;1984;prec; -999.9; -999.9; -999.9; 72.10; 342.80; 336.50; 286.60; 427.30; 237.20; 498.90; 401.20; 340.70; -999.9
slv ;1985;prec; 84.30; 232.70; 83.30; 71.80; 190.30; 614.40; 318.00; 462.70; 363.90; 238.10; 298.60; 170.70; 3128.80
slv ;1986;prec; 215.30; 80.50; 211.80; 235.60; 175.90; 518.90; 445.70; 594.70; 591.90; 416.30; 214.50; 215.90; 3917.00
Temp (temporal) - specific year or long-term statistic:
mean = mean based on all years
numb = number of years
stdv = standard deviation based on all years
prec = precipitation for month or year (mm)
tmax = mean maximum temperature for month or year (C)
tmin = mean minimum temperature for month or year (C)
3. Data Application and Derivation:
The accumulation of biomass, or NPP, is the net gain of carbon by photosynthesis that remains after plant respiration. While there are many fates for this carbon, this data set gives a crude minimum estimate of NPP based on litterfall measurements and unpublished data on root production.
The tropical forest dynamics data for the La Selva site are provided for comparison with models and estimation of NPP. Climate data are provided for use in driving ecosystem/NPP models.
4. Quality Assessment:
Ecosystem characteristics of La Selva have been compared with other tropical moist forests and rainforests (Jordan, 1985; McDade et al., 1994; Vitousek, 1984). From these comparisons, La Selva is characterized as a moderate- to high-statured forest (with a very low fraction of below-ground biomass), which produces large quantities of nutrient-rich, nonscleromorphic foliage that decomposes readily. Furthermore, it exhibits none of the extensive superficial root mat, canopy scavenging of precipitation nutrients, or low soil solution concentrations observed on extremely poor substrates in Amazonian blackwater regions. La Selva forests also exhibit high availability and rapid interconversions of some nutrients, judging from the extremely high nitrogen mineralization, nitrification, and denitrification potentials measured. Its leaf production, however, is less than the very high values reported for forests on dolomite soils.
On the basis of a comparison of ecosystem parameters from seven lowland tropical rainforests, Jordan (1985) suggests that La Selva is among the more eutrophic of rainforests studied. Dry mass/nutrient ratio of litterfall is used by Vitousek (1984) and others as an index of efficiency, where an efficient within-stand nutrient economy as one in which a relatively large amount of organic matter is produced per unit of nutrient taken up.
Sources of Error
Information not available.
5. Data Acquisition Materials and Methods:
This study was carried out at the Organization for Tropical Studies, La Selva Biological Station (10.43 N, 83.978 W) located at the confluence of the Sarapiqui and Puerto Viejo rivers on the Atlantic lowlands of Costa Rica, Central America. The area is a mosaicof several distinct edaphic zones, including alluvial terraces formed by contemporaneous or prehistoric flooding, areas of residual soils(mainly ultisols) formed by in-place weathering of lava flows, swamps, and infertile colluvial soils of small stream valleys.
La Selva, with about fifteen hundred species of native vascular plants known to date (1994), is a prime example of high species richness on a relatively small scale (McDade et al., 1994). The natural vegetation of La Selva is classic tropical rainforest characterized by a species-rich, multi-layered community with impressive trees, lianas, epiphytes, and broad-leaved monocots. Primary forest on rolling terrain is the principal vegetation type and the most extensive landform of La Selva (848 acres, or 52.5% of the 1,536 acre reserve). Other than abandoned plantations on alluvial terraces, early successional pasture, a small arboretum, and other managed habitats, which make up the balance of the land area, La Selva has no known recent history of human disturbance.
Long-term climate data comprises monthly and annual precipitation records (1984-1997) and maximum/minimum temperature records (1992-1997) from the centrally-located East Bank weather station in the biological station. La Selva receives a mean annual rainfall of 3,824 mm (1984-1997 period), with a relatively dry season in February-April. March is normally the driest month, with peak rainfall occurring in June/July and November/December. Annual mean minimum and maximum temperatures range from 19.55 to 32.25 C.
Figure 2. Forest canopy seen from the eddy flux tower at La Selva (The tall tree with yellow flowers is Vochysia ferruginea and the palm in the foreground is Iriartea deltoidea. Photograph taken about June 1997 by Dr. S. Oberbauer, Florida International University).
Figure 3. Another view from the eddy flux tower at La Selva (The 42 m walk-up tower is being used for continuous long-term eddy covariance measurements of net CO2 and water fluxes between La Selva's old-growth forest and the atmosphere. Photograph taken about June 1997 by Dr. S. Oberbauer, Florida International University).
Above-ground biomass was measured in different areas on different occasions at La Selva. These data were gathered for different purposes and with somewhat different techniques.
- OTS plots (Lieberman and Lieberman, 1987; Lieberman and Lieberman, 1994).
- Three 4-ha long-term forest inventory plots subjectively sited to cover a range of soil types (alluvial terrace; alluvium and colluvium; and residual soils overlying basalt parent material, respectively) were established in 1969-70, and all trees and lianas 10 cm dbh above buttressesor above were tagged and measured.
- Plot basal area was calculated from dbh measurements. From 1982 to 1983, a second complete inventory was conducted; at this time a 10-m grid system was established in the plots to facilitate accurate mapping. New recruits to the 10-cm dbh class were mapped, measured, tagged, and identified.
- Biomass was estimated from the 1982 to 1983 basal area using the linear regression equation y = 0.89 x - 136,
where y is the total above-ground biomass (kg) and x is the basal area (cm2). This relationship was developed by the Departmento de Ingenieria Forestal, Instituto Technologico de Costa Rica from work from carried out a few km southeast of La Selva, where 100 lowland forest trees were measured, harvested, dried, and weighed (A. T. Joyse, unpublished data).
- OTS plots (Clark and Clark, 2000). The plots were re-measured in 1985 and 1988-89. Plot data from 1988-89 are included in the data file.
- Vegetation map plots (Clark and Clark, 2000).
- These data come from 1,170 circular 0.01 ha plots centered on the grid posts of a previously-established 50 x 100-m grid that covers the La Selva reserve (Clark, 1998). All grid points in a 573 ha area of old growth were sampled.
- At each plot, diameter of each stem was measured using a fabric diameter tape (±1 mm resolution) at breast height or above buttresses or major stem irregularities.
- Carbono plots (the Carbono Project described in Clark and Clark, 2000).
- The 1994 data come from eighteen 0.5-ha plots (each 50 x 100 m) that are part of a landscape-scale study on carbon storage and flux in the old-growth tropical rain forest.
- Plot locations were established using the La Selva GIS topographic coverage and soil coverage of Clark et al. (1998). Six plots were allocated each of three edaphic conditions: relatively fertile flat inceptisols (old alluvial terraces); relatively infertile ultisol areas on ridge tops; and ultisol steep slopes.
- Diameter above buttresses was measured as in the Vegetation map plots.
All diameters measured in the three studies listed above, including those of palms and lianas, were transformed into estimated above-ground biomass using the Tropical Wet Forest allometric equation of Brown (1997):
Biomass (kg) = 21.297 - 6.953DBH + 0.740(DBH2)
where DBH is diameter in cm at breast height or above buttresses.
Total litterfall, leaf litterfall, nutrient content of litterfall, litterfall decomposition, and standing stock of soil surface litter were measured in different areas of the La Selva forest on several occasions. Annual and monthly rates were calculated.
Gessel et al. (1979) report total annual litterfall rates for fine litter fraction and the potassium content of leaf litter fall for a drought-deciduous forest (MAP 1,500 mm) on an old alluvial terrace.
Nitrogen and calcium content of leaf litter fall (fine litter fraction) in the old alluvial forest soils is also reported (Vitousek, 1984). Gessel et al., 1977, and C. C. Grier, per. comm. in Vitousek, 1984, report total annual litterfall rates and nitrogen and calcium content of leaf litterfall for a La Selva lowland rainforest forest (MAP 4,300 mm).
In a separate study, litter production on a forest plot on residual (Matabuey) soil near the southern boundary of the La Selva Western Annex was estimated from monthly litterfall collection distributed rather evenly throughout the year (Parker, per. comm. in McDade et al., 1994).
Sanford (pers. comm. in McDade et al. (1994)), measured total litterfall (leaves, branches, and other tissues) on six plots throughout La Selva. Cole and Johnson (1979) measured the standing stock of soil surface litter. Gessel et al. (1979) report the exponential decay constants for leaf litter decomposition (dry mass loss) of confined leaves of Pentaclethra macroloba and Bursera simaruba.
Below-ground biomass and root production
Raich (1980) measured total root biomass:
- Roots (< 5 mm) were sampled by Raich (1983) by excavating square soil blocks 10 cm wide and 5 or 10 cm deep from ten pits at various soil depths (0-50 cm), removed from the soil, and sorted intotwo diameter classes: 0-2 and 2-5 mm; roots > 5 mm in diameter were excluded. Roots were oven dried and weighed.
- Root biomass was also measured by Sandford (1989) in a 4-m by 4-m plot in an intact forest in La Selva Permanent Measurement Plot 1. Ten randomly located soil samples were taken from the plot. The samples were removed with a 15 cm diameter tubiform corer, and the cores were removed and gently washed in 0.5 mm mesh bags until all of the soil was removed. Cleaned roots were sorted by hand into the following diameter size classes: <2 mm, 2 <5 mm, 5<10 mm. Root size class determination was based on the thickness of the roots in the middle of each fragment. All samples were oven dried for 48 hours at 85 degrees C and then weighed to 0.001 g. Fine root biomass values reported here include live and dead root fractions. Production of fine roots (< 2 mm) was estimated by Sanford (pers. comm.) at residual and alluvial soil plots in the mature forest.
Net nitrogen mineralization was measured monthly in composite soil samples, each made up of five 6-cm diameter by 15-cm deep cores, collected in mature-phase intact forest using a combination of in situ and laboratory incubations (Paired soil cores were also collected from crown-fall gap zones; see literature for these data). The annual net nitrogen mineralization was estimated by summing the monthly estimates for mineralization in the field, and adjusting them for bulk density. Available phosphorus was extracted from subsamples of the soil cores (Vitousek and Denslow, 1986).
Climate data are available from the "East Bank" weather station at the La Selva tropical forest study siteat an elevation of 42 m. Monthly and annual precipitation data are available for 1984-1997; maximum/minimum temperature are for 1992-1997.
6. Data Access:
This data set is available through the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) Distributed Active Archive Center (DAAC).
Web Site: http://daac.ornl.gov
Contact for Data Center Access Information:
Telephone: +1 (865) 241-3952
Clark, D. B., and D.A. Clark. 2000. Landscape-scale variation in forest structure and biomass in a tropical rain forest. Forest Ecology and Management 137: 185-198.
Cole, D. W. and D. W. Johnson. 1979. Mineral cycling in tropical forests. Publication no. 1269, Environmental Sciences Division, Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, TN.
Gessel, S. P., D. W. Cole, D. W. Johnson, and J. Turner. 1979. The nutrient cycles of two Costa Rican forests, pp 623-642. Actas del IV Simposium Internacional de Ecología Tropical, Vol. 2. Univ. of Panama, Panama.
Gessel, S. P., D. W. Cole, D. W. Johnson, and J. Turner. 1977. The nutrient cycles of two Costa Rican forests, pp. 23-44. In: Progress in Ecology. Volume III. Today and Tomorrow's Printers and Publishers, New Delhi, India.
Jordan, C. F. 1985. Nutrient cycling in tropical forest ecosystems: principles and their application in management and conservation. Wiley, NY. 190 pp.
Lieberman, M., and D. Lieberman. 1994. Patterns of density and dispersion of forest trees, pp. 106-119. In: McDade, L. A., K. S. Bawa, H. A. Hespenheide, and G. S. Hartshorn (eds.). La Selva: Ecology and Natural History of a Neotropical Rain Forest. University of Chicago Press, Chicago.
McDade, L. A., K. S. Bawa, H. A. Hespenheide, and G. S. Hartshorn (eds.). 1994. La Selva: ecology and natural history of a neotropical rain forest. University of Chicago Press. 486 pp.
Olson, R.J., K.R. Johnson, D.L. Zheng, and J.M.O. Scurlock. 2001. Global and Regional Ecosystem Modeling: Databases ofModel Drivers and Validation Measurements. ORNL Technical Memorandum TM-2001/196. Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, Tennessee,U.S.A.
Raich, J. W. 1980. Carbon budget of a tropical soil under mature wet forest and young vegetation. MS thesis, University of Florida, Gainsville, FL.
Raich, J. W. 1983. Effects of Forest Conversion on the Carbon Budget of a Tropical Soil. Biotropica, 15(3): 177-184.
Sanford, R. L., Jr. 1989. Fine root biomass under a tropical forest light gap opening in Costa Rica. Journal of Tropical Ecology 5: 251-256.
Vitousek, P. M. 1984. Litterfall, nutrient cycling, and nutrient limitation in tropical forests. Ecology, 65: 285-298.
Vitousek, P. M., and J. S. Denslow. 1986. Nitrogen and phosphorus availability in treefall gaps of a lowland tropical rainforest. Journal of Ecology 74: 1167-1178.
Additional Sources of Information:
Brown, S. 1997. Estimating Biomass and Biomass Change of Tropical Forests: a Primer. UN FAO Forestry Paper 134. Food and Agriculture Organization, Rome.
Brown, S., and A. E. Lugo. 1992. Aboveground biomass estimates for tropical moist forests of the Brazilian Amazon. Interciencia 17: 8-18.
Clark, D. A. 1998. Deciphering landscape mosaics of neotropical trees: GIS and systematic sampling provide new views of tropical rainforest diversity. Ann. Missouri Bot. Gar. 85: 18-33.
Clark, D. B., D. A. Clark, and J. M. Read. 1998. Edaphic variation and the mesoscale distribution of tree species in a neotropical rain forest. J. Ecol. 86: 101-112.
Lieberman, D., M. Lieberman, G. Hartshorn, and R. Peralta. 1985. Mortality patterns and stand turnover rates in a wet tropical forest in Costa Rica. Journal of Ecology 73: 915-924.
Lieberman, D., and M. Lieberman. 1987. Forest tree growth and dynamics at La Selva, Costa Rica (1969-1982). Journal of Tropical Ecology 3: 347-358.
Olson, R.J., J.M.O. Scurlock, S.D. Prince, D.L. Zheng, and K.R. Johnson (eds.). 2013a. NPP Multi-Biome: Global Primary Production Data Initiative Products, R2. Data set. Available on-line [http://daac.ornl.gov] from the Oak Ridge National Laboratory Distributed Active Archive Center, Oak Ridge, Tennessee, USA doi:10.3334/ORNLDAAC/617
Olson, R.J., J.M.O. Scurlock, S.D. Prince, D.L. Zheng, and K.R. Johnson (eds.). 2013b. NPP Multi-Biome: NPP and Driver Data for Ecosystem Model-Data Intercomparison, R2. Data set. Available on-line [http://daac.ornl.gov] from the Oak Ridge National Laboratory Distributed Active Archive Center, Oak Ridge, Tennessee, USA doi:10.3334/ORNLDAAC/615
Scurlock, J.M.O., and R.J. Olson. 2002. Terrestrial net primary productivity - A brief history and a new worldwide database. Environ. Rev. 10(2): 91-109. doi:10.1139/a02-002
Scurlock, J.M.O., and R.J. Olson. 2013. NPP Multi-Biome: Grassland, Boreal Forest, and Tropical Forest Sites, 1939-1996, R1. Data set. Available on-line [http://daac.ornl.gov] from Oak Ridge National Laboratory Distributed Active Archive Center, Oak Ridge, Tennessee, USA doi:10.3334/ORNLDAAC/653
8. Data Set Revisions
The temporal coverage in the data file, slv_npp.txt, has been corrected. Biomass of fine roots (< 5 mm) from p. 181 in Raich (1983) has been added. Root biomass in three root diameter size classes from Table 1 in Sanford (1989) has been added. The parameter label for potassium concentration in leaf litterfall (leaflittfall-K) has been corrected. Additional References / Comments have been added.
All other NPP labels and data values in the data file are not affected.
Data File Changes:
The data values, parameter labels, and References / Comments inslv_npp_r1.txt are now correct.
|Parameter in Data Set *||Uncorrected in slv_npp.txt||Corrected in slv_npp_r1.txt|
|roots (< 2 mm) (g/m2)||**||139.9|
|roots (2 < 5 mm) (g/m2)||**||87.7|
|roots (> 5 mm) (g/m2)||**||424.1|
|Label for potassium concentration in leaf litterfall||leaflittfall-P||leaflittfall-K|
|References / Comments for OTSplots AGbiomass||Clark and Clark (2000)||Lieberman and Lieberman (1994); Clark and Clark (2000)|
|References / Comments for litter||Cole and Johnson (1979) in McDade et al. (1994)||Cole and Johnson (1979); McDade et al. (1994)|
|References / Comments for1979 Totlittfall||Gessel et al. (1979) in McDade et al. (1994)||Gessel et al. (1977); Gessel et al. (1979) in McDade et al. (1994)|
|References / Comments for1980 Totlittfall||Gessel/Grier in Vitousek (1984)||Gessel et al. (1977); Grier, pers. comm. in Vitousek (1984)|
|References / Comments forTotlittfall-N||Gessel/Grier in Vitousek (1984)||Gessel et al. (1977); Grier, pers. comm. in Vitousek (1984)|
|References / Comments forleaflitter-C/N||Jordan (1985)||Cole and Johnson (1979); Jordan (1985)|
|References / Comments forleafdecomp(k)||Gessel et al. (1979) in McDade et al. (1994)||Pentaclethra macroloba leaves; Gessel et al. (1979) in McDade et al. (1994)|
|References / Comments forleafdecomp(k)||Gessel et al. (1979) in McDade et al. (1994)||Bursera simaruba leaves; Gessel et al. (1979) in McDade et al. (1994)|
* = See data set Guide document for parameter definitions and data references.
** = not reported.
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